The immune system helps your body protect you from bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Harmful and harmless bacteria are always present in and around your body. White cells protect you from harmful bacteria. Your body organs release lymphocytes. Lymphocytes or white cells are of two types. B type cells release antibodies when your body detects disease, and T-cells are responsible for destroying foreign or abnormal cells. If your body prevents you from fighting these infections and diseases, you have a disorder, namely immunodeficiency. Lack of protein causes a weak immune system.
There are two types of immunodeficiency disorders: primary and secondary immunodeficiency disorder. Both types are mentioned below with further subcategories:
Primary Immunodeficiency disorder or PIDDs are genetically transferred disease. There are more than 200 different types of PIDD disorders. If you are suffering from PIDD, different types of white cells or proteins are missing in your blood, and this leads to severe infections. This deficiency may attack the respiratory system, brain, spinal cord, and urinary or gastrointestinal tracts. Some PIDD diseases affect body organs, cells, and tissues. If you find these symptoms, you might have PIDD:
This condition can cause a reduction in B-cells. When B-cells lack in your body, you will be a target of various infections, and the treatment is difficult. Even after you treat these infections, there are chances of getting them again. The most common bacterial infections that you might face are lung infections, ear infections, sinus, and pink eye. If your child is suffering from this immune deficiency, he or she will be fine for 1 to 2 months. He or she gets protection from antibodies that their mother transfers to them while giving birth. Once these antibodies are out of their bodies, they are at risk of infections.
This disease can cause permanent damage to the respiratory tract because of severe and repeated infections. This deficiency occurs when the body opens to bacteria and viruses and is unable to defend itself. The infections affect the ears and the respiratory tract. In many cases of CVID, diagnosis is not possible at an early stage. If you are suffering from CVID, you might have higher risks of getting cancer. This disease can affect both males and females, and severity may vary from one victim to another.
Diseases that come under secondary immunodeficiency disorders are a result of environmental factors. Examples include HIV, malnutrition, and severe burns. These are more common than PIDD. If your immune system is infected by external factors like drugs, metabolic diseases, or environmental conditions, this may cause a deficiency in your body. If your body has limited access to food, you might end up suffering from malnutrition, which can result in decreasing the production of T-cells. Your body is prone to various infections if you lack T-cells, as these cells help protect your body from abnormal cells.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV is a type of virus that causes AIDS. Your immune system is a defense mechanism for your body. The healthy immune system can control many viruses with the help of T-Cells. HIV targets these cells and causes them to make copies of viruses that damage your immune system. The advanced stage of HIV disease is AIDS. It is a deadly disease that occurs when HIV is not controlled, and the body loses too many T-Cells. That makes your body’s immune system weak, and you are unable to fight infections.
When cancer infects the tissues that form blood, the result is Leukemia. This type of cancer occurs in both children and adults. This affects your bone marrow and the lymphatic system.
Immunodeficiency is a severe condition, and you should take it seriously. Any ignorance in its treatment can cause serious problems. Some of these diseases can be fatal. For a consultation regarding this deficiency, you can contact us.
Call or book an appointment with our NYC Allergist to get help with your condition.
Boyan Hadjiev, MD
30 East 40th Street
(Btwn Madison and Park)
New York, NY 10016
Allergies are widespread these days as the seasonal change is occurring. Coughing, sneezing, headache, and swollen faces are a common sight in this weather.
These are common symptoms of hay fever, but it is important to know that not everyone experiencing this condition is suffering from allergic rhinitis. Interestingly, one out of three affectees of rhinitis is non- allergic.
You may mistake the common symptoms of non-allergic rhinitis as allergic rhinitis. Proper examination of symptoms helps to clear the confusion. After the diagnosis of allergic disease, see an allergist for further testing.
Allergists are highly qualified trained physicians who not only diagnose immune system disorders but also help in preventing, managing, and treating allergenic reactions.
As the name implies, allergy tests help to diagnose different allergy conditions. Allergy tests give a better picture to Allergists of how the subject’s body reacts to specific allergens –such as pollen, animal dander, certain food, or medication.
The most authentic and practiced method of allergy testing is the Skin Test. Radioallergosorbent testing (RAST) –a blood test –is another way.
Skin tests date back to the last century. These are still the primary source to diagnose an allergic disease –especially those spread by air, including pollen, dust mites, and dander. Food allergies are complexed sometimes, and skin test may prove to be of little help in diagnosing these allergies.
Skin tests are safer for people of all age groups. Though there is not much risk involved, skin testing is prohibited if the patient has sensitive skin, is on antihistamine or specific blood pressure medication, or have a heart or lungs disease.
The most commonly used skin testing technique is the Skin Prick Test, also known as Puncture or Scratch test. Allergistsuse a hypoallergenic pen tomark an area of the forearm then put tiny drops of an allergen on that part.
Within a span of half-a-minute, the allergists observe if the allergen triggers any reaction. Immunologists can check allergic reactions to as many as 40 substances in one test.
In this type of test, allergist injects a small amount of an allergen in the patient’s arm with a needle. He then observes the injected area after 15 minutes for the signs of allergic reactions. Intradermal reactions help diagnose drug and environmental allergies.
Patch testing does not require needles. Instead, the allergist applies as many as 20 to 30 allergens to a patch which he places on the patient’s arm. The patch remains in contact with the skin for 48 hours. During this time, you should avoid bathing or any activity causing heavy sweating. Irritation on the skin after the removal of patches suggests that you are allergic.
These tests help detect delayed allergenic reactions.
People with severe skin conditions can opt for a blood test instead of skin allergy testing. RAST is an expensive and time taking method as compared to skin testing. This method is particularly useful in examining food allergies.
The allergists draw a sample of the patient’s blood to measure specific allergic antibodies. This test does not indicate the severity of the reaction but helps diagnose allergic reactions.
It has become easier than ever before to diagnose, manage, and treat your allergies. For primary allergy testing to treatment, contact us, and schedule an appointment with the best Immunologists at Dr. Sneeze in NYC.
Boyan Hadjiev, MD
30 East 40th Street
New York, NY 10016
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